GREAT BARRINGTON, MA—Industrial production rose 1.6 percent in December, following a gain of 0.5 percent in November and 1.0 percent in October, reports the American Institute of Economic Research. Industrial output has risen in seven of the last eight months. However, the gains were not enough to overcome the back-to-back declines of 4.4 percent and 12.7 percent in March and April, respectively. Over the past year, industrial production is down 3.6 percent and 3.3 percent below the pre-pandemic level in February.

Manufacturing output, which accounts for about 75 percent of total industrial production, rose 0.9 percent after a gain of 0.8 in November and 1.3 percent in October. Manufacturing output has risen for eight consecutive months and follows declines of 5.0 percent and 15.8 percent in March and April. The eight consecutive gains still leave manufacturing output 2.8 percent below year-ago levels and 2.6 percent below the 2018-2019 average index level.

Among the key segments of industrial output, energy production jumped 3.8 percent for the month but is still down 73 percent from a year ago. Motor-vehicle production, one of the hardest hit industries during the lockdowns, fell 1.6 percent in December after a 5.0 percent gain in November. Motor-vehicle production is up 3.6 compared with December 2019. Total vehicle assemblies fell to 10.73 million at a seasonally-adjusted annual rate. That consists of 10.40 million light vehicles and 0.33 million heavy trucks. Within light vehicles, light trucks were 8.36 million while cars were 2.03 million.
High-tech industries output rose by 0.8 percent in December, the seventh monthly gain in a row and is up 5.1 percent versus a year ago. All other industries combined (total excluding energy, high-tech, and motor vehicles; about 2/3 of total industrial output) gained 1.1 percent in December but are still 3.0 percent below December 2019.

Total industrial utilization rose to 74.5 percent in December from 73.4 percent in November. That is well below the long-term (1972-2019) average utilization of 79.8 percent. Manufacturing utilization rose 0.7 percentage points to 73.4 percent, well below the long-term average of 78.2 percent and below the 2018-2019 average of 76.1 percent (see bottom of first chart).

December data suggest that while manufacturing output continues to recover, output and utilization remain well below pre-pandemic levels. Furthermore, reinstated government restrictions have the potential to delay the economic recovery, suggesting it may take an extended period of time to return to pre-pandemic levels.